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25  Higgs field and Higgs Boson【What is the Universe?】Dialogue with the Universe

25−1 Higgs field and mass
○The Higgs field is an energy field that is thought to exist everywhere in the universe. [1]
○In Higgs field, particles(except photon, require energy of mc ^ 2 additionally. [2] So they now cannot travel at the speed of light. [1]
※If the energy of the interaction between certain particle and Higgs field is strong, the mass of the particle increases. (It will require significant energy to move the particle) [2]
○Higgs field condensed by the time the temperature of the universe fell, then mass and the Higgs boson appeared. [3]
:The birth of mass( After 10^-9 second  The temperature of the universe 10^13K)
※If the Higgs field did not exist, particles would not have the mass required to attract one another, and would float around freely at light speed. [1]

○However, Higgs field is the original of 2% of mass. [4]
※Most of the mass of protons and neutrons is the kinetic energy of elemental particles (quark, antiquark, gluons). [5]

※Energy also has mass according to the principle of mass–energy equivalence.

○There are two types of mass. [6]
1) Difficulty of acceleration → inertial mass ••• by Higgs field
2) Degree of weight due to gravitation → gravitational mass ••• by gravitational field
1) and 2) are equivalent.
※The equality of inertial and active gravitational mass remains as puzzling as ever.

25−2 Higgs boson
○Higgs boson is the vibration of the Higgs field. : Higgs boson appears when you excite the Higgs field.
・Spin, Electric charge:0 [4]
・Mass:125.3 GeV [4]

標準モデル−1.png
※The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
MissMJ - Own work by uploader, PBS NOVA, Fermilab, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy, Particle Data Group [7]
※ Graviton does not enter into the standard model. Gravity can not be described well with the Standard Model.

○July 04, 2012, Conseil Europeenne pour la Reaherche Nucleaire (CERN, in Switzerland)announced that they discovered a new particle which they could believe it as Higgs boson. [1]

【References】
1. Wikipedia:Higgs field
2. ヒッグス粒子と質量の謎(ヒッグス粒子は何をするのか)
http://www.phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp/~maeno/timeandspace2014/lec14_higgs.html
3. 島根大学集中講義 真空の性質2009
http://osksn2.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp/~naga/kogi/shimane-class09/shimanelec2_vac.pdf
4. Wikipedia:Higgs boson
5. ヒッグス粒子にはできないこと−物理学と切手収集
http://d.hatena.ne.jp/hundun2/20111219/1324367739
6. Wikipedia:mass
7. Wikipedia:Standard Model

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